Nature has been the source of medicinal products, particularly antibiotics, for millennia. Despite the drop or weakening of the big pharmaceutical companies for R&D programs for antibacterials, there is an urgent need for antiinfective agents targeting multi-drug resistant pathogens. Biotech companies are taking charge of the discovery and development pipeline for antibacterial agents and natural products play a dominant role in the discovery of new structural leads. However, only a small fraction of microbial world has been accessed. NAICONS strongly believes that the microbial resource is so vast as to seem unlimited, and that the potential of microbial diversity remains essentially untapped. The explosion of genetic information and the advent of genetic techniques permitted the implementation of the combinatorial biosynthetic technology and genome mining, thus allowing unknown molecules to be identified.